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Uneven accountability in anti-doping: The role of socio-economic and political factors unobserved in the current system

Discussion paper (Jorge Leyva)

The creation of the World Anti-doping Agency (WADA) has contributed to the effective harmonization of the anti-doping regulation over the past 22 years through the establishment of the World Anti-Doping Code (WADC).

The WADC foresees sanctions for athletes, athletes support personnel and sport officials for different types of anti-doping rule violations (ADRVs). When it comes to the athletes, the system is clear, athletes bear the responsibility for what enters their body.

A second pillar of the WADC sanctioning system aims at the suspension of Code signatories for not following the Code. Through the WADC and the UNESCO Anti-Doping Convention, states are committed to combating doping by establishing and funding their own National Anti-Doping Organisation (NADO) which designs and conducts a national anti-doping program. For their failure to conduct a robust anti-doping program, NADOs can be sanctioned and declared non-compliant under the WADC.